A qualitative/quantitative approach for the detection of 37 tryptamine-derived designer drugs, 5 β-carbolines, ibogaine, and yohimbine in human urine and plasma using standard urine screening and multi-analyte approaches

Abstract

The first synthetic tryptamines have entered the designer drug market in the late 1990s and were distributed as psychedelic recreational drugs. In the meantime, several analogs have been brought onto the market indicating a growing interest in this drug class. So far, only scarce analytical data were available on the detectability of tryptamines in human biosamples. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was the development and full validation of a method for their detection in human urine and plasma and their quantification in human plasma. The liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry method presented covered 37 tryptamines as well as five β-carbolines, ibogaine, and yohimbine. Compounds were analyzed after protein precipitation of urine or fast liquid–liquid extraction of plasma using an LXQ linear ion trap coupled to an Accela ultra ultra high-performance liquid chromatography system. Data mining was performed via information-dependent acquisition or targeted product ion scan mode with positive electrospray ionization. The assay was selective for all tested substances with limits of detection in urine between 10 and 100 ng/mL and in plasma between 1 and 100 ng/mL. A validated quantification in plasma according to international recommendation could be demonstrated for 33 out of 44 analytes.

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